The average adult human body is 50 - 65% water but what holds this all together?

Nucleotides are organic molecules which make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Essentially, they are human lego!

Nucleotides are critical for achieving optimal immune function and are also important for the maintenance of gut health.

...and find out why you should consider including Lipolife Nucleotide Complex as part of your daily routine.

Lipolife® formulations, deliver nutrients directly to the cells, ensuring much higher absorption.




Nucleotides exist in all living organisms.

In fact, every cell in your body contains them – over a billion per cell.  Nucleotides are important for many biological functions, including their role as the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

The body has an on-going demand for new cell production.  Adults must create new cells at a rate at least sufficient to replace the cells that die.  To do this the cell and its DNA divides to form two new cells.  This cell proliferation is a lengthy and complicated process, dependant on energy and the supply of all five specific nucleotide building blocks to build the DNA and the RNA molecules in the new cells.


Nucleotides are composed of three basic units; a nitrogenous base, a 5-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group.
These units are held together by bonds which involve the sharing of electrons between each of the units.
This type of chemical bond is known as a covalent bond.


Nucleotides differ according to the type of nitrogenous base and sugar units that exist in their structure. For example, there are in total five different nitrogenous bases that can be used to complete the structure of a nucleotide, these include Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine Adenine and Guanosine. The names of individual nucleotides depend largely on the types of molecular units of which they’re formed. For example, a nucleotide that includes Adenosine, the 5-carbon sugar ribose, and a single phosphate is called Adenosine-5-Monophosphate (AMP). A nucleotide that includes Guanosine instead of Adenosine is simply called Guanosine-5-Monophosphate (GMP). A nucleotide that includes Guanosine, phosphate but includes deoxyribose instead of ribose, is simply called a Deoxy-Guanosine-5-Monophosphate (dGMP).








There are a number of different nucleotides in total; AMP, CMP TMP, GMP, UMP with ribose as the sugar unit, and dAMP, dCMP, dTMP, dGMP. dUMP with deoxyribose as the sugar unit. Ribose and deoxyribose are the only two sugar units which form nucleotides and these five-carbon long monosaccharides are also used to form RNA and DNA, respectively. A phosphate group is simply a molecule containing a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen one of which involves a double bond, phosphate is also the conjugate base of phosphoric acid.



This turnover of cells is so high, the body requires assistance via dietary intake as whilst the body can make nucleotides itself or salvage them from dying cells, certain types of cells require supplementary nucleotides provided in a person’s diet.

Beyond breast milk, nucleotides are typically found in foods which are far less common in the modern diet.  Meals containing tripe, liver and kidneys provide high levels of nucleotides but typically, these are not foods which are consumed today and especially not for vegetarians and vegans.

Unlike some vitamins and minerals, nucleotides are not yet considered essential nutrients for humans but poor diet, stress, chronic illness and the excessive use of antibiotics and alcohol all increase the body’s need for nucleotides in order to facilitate regular and effective cell proliferation.


Historically, nucleotides have been termed “conditionally essential” because of their known biological importance.

To date, there is a substantial amount of human evidence to suggest that nucleotides are essential for achieving optimal immune function and are important for the maintenance of gut health.

Findings from several trials suggest nucleotide supplementation may also have ergogenic effects.

CLINICAL TRIAL - Carver et al., 1991

A clinical trial investigated differences in immune cell activity between breast-fed infants, infants fed nucleotide-supplemented formula and infants fed only standard formula.

The results of this trial revealed infants fed with nucleotide-supplemented formula had a higher natural killer cell (NK-cell) activity than infants fed standard formula.

The NK-cell activity of the nucleotide group was also comparable to the breast milk group, with breast milk being a naturally rich source of nucleotides.
Interleukin-2 production was also higher in the nucleotide group compared to the standard formula groups indicating an immunostimulatory effect as a result of nucleotide-supplemented formula feeding.
(Carver et al., 1991).

CLINICAL TRIAL - Singhal et al., 2010

In another trial, infants randomly assigned to receive nucleotide supplemented formula had increased gut microbiota ratios of bifidobacterium as a result of nucleotide supplementation which was greater than the standard formula-fed controls and comparable to breastfed infants (Singhal et al., 2008).

Later research showed infants supplemented with nucleotides had improved growth rates compared to controls with greater head circumference recorded at eight, sixteen and twenty weeks and greater body weights at eight weeks (Singhal et al., 2010).

CLINICAL TRIAL - Mc Naughton, Bentley and Koeppel, 2006

In a placebo-controlled trial, the immune and stress responses were measured in exercise-trained adult males before and after endurance exercise, at baseline and after sixty days of Nucleotide supplementation.





Following exercise, cortisol was raised and salivary IgA levels were lower in all groups.

However, in the nucleotide group, cortisol and salivary IgA levels were significantly lower and higher in the nucleotide group, respectively, compared to the placebo group (Mc Naughton, Bentley and Koeppel, 2006).

Another placebo-controlled trial involving intense exercise showed similar findings with post-exercise cortisol response and IgA response being the lowest and highest, respectively, in the group taking nucleotides compared to the control and placebo groups (Mc Naughton, Bentley and Koeppel, 2007).

CLINICAL TRIAL - Sterczala et al., 2016

In a double-blinded cross-over style study involving trained men and women, a nucleotide-vitamin complex was pre-loaded for two weeks, during which participants maintained their exercise regime.

At the beginning of the third-week participants undertook an acute and heavy resistance training protocol after which findings were recorded.

Nucleotide supplementation was able to offset some of the exercise-induced physiological changes which resulted in lowers levels of cortisol and myeloperoxidase both which were uninhibited in the placebo group.

Additionally, a significantly greater increase in isometric force from baseline was seen in the nucleotide group compared to the placebo group (Sterczala et al., 2016).


Evidence from humans studies has shown nucleotides modulate immune function at all stages of life, play a key role in the renewal and proliferation of intestinal cells, reduce exercise-induced stress responses and may also have ergogenic effects.

Nucleotides should form a fundamental part of any therapy seeking to optimise immune function and gut health.  Furthermore, nucleotides may also be useful for athletes or those involved in exercise for maintaining a healthy immune system and for improving parameters of exercise performance.

There are likely many more unexplored benefits from nucleotide supplementation which further research should investigate.

Nucleotides in Liposomal Formulas

By their very nature, liposomes have the extraordinary advantage of being able to carry a wide range of compounds making them the ideal and far superior method for effectively delivering nutrients. What makes liposomes extra special is that they can deliver their contents directly into the cells of the body, protecting the contents from digestion or oxidation before the final delivery and without the consumption of mitochondrial energy.

The huge potential offered by Nucleotides combined with the targeted delivery of liposomes makes the possibility of a truly “super supplement” very real indeed.

We would love to hear from anyone who would be interested in using Lipolife Nucleotide Complex as part of their fitness regime or if you already use the product, any benefits or improvements you've experienced either in your stamina, recovery or in general.






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